Heimildir og ítarefni fyrir kafla 2

1. Department of Energy & Climate Change (2014): Exploration and production – Oil and gas: field data. https://www.gov.uk/oil-and-gas-uk-field-data#oil-discharged-with-produced-water.

2. Fate of marine oil spills. Technical Information Paper, 2. ITOPF (International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/technical-information-papers/

3. Lincoln Pratson, 2017. Oil and Gas Operations and Markets. Duke University. Opinn háskólaáfangi á coursera.org

4. National Research Council of the National Academies (2003): Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, fates, and effects. The National Academy Press. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/10388/oil-in-the-sea-iii-inputs-fates-and-effects

5. Planet oil (olíuplánetan). Heimildaþættir BBC frá 2015, sýndir á RUV árið 2017.

6. Quality Status Report 2010. Ospar Commission. https://qsr2010.ospar.org/en/index.html

7. Schrobe, Mark (2013): Oil dispersants used during Gulf spill degrade slowly in cold water. Chemical & Engineering News, 13. febrúar 2013.

8. https://cen.acs.org/articles/91/web/2013/02/Oil-Dispersants-Used-During-Gulf.html.

9. Short, Jeffrey W.; Gail V. Irvine; Daniel H. Mann; Jacek M. Maselko; Jerome J. Pella; Mandy R. Lindeberg; James R. Payne; William B. Driskell og Stanley D. Rice (2007): Slightly Weathered Exxon Valdez Oil Persists in Gulf of Alaska Beach Sediments after 16 Years. Environmental Science and Technology, 2007, 41 (4), bls. 1245-1250. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es0620033.

10. Use of booms in oil pollution response. Technical Information Paper, 3. ITOPF. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/technical-information-papers/

11. Use of dispersants to treat oil spills. Technical Information Paper, 4. ITOPF. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/technical-information-papers/

12. Use of skimmers in oil pollution response. Technical Information Paper, 5. ITOPF. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/technical-information-papers/

13. Use of sorbent materials in oil spill response. Technical Information Paper, 8. ITOPF. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/technical-information-papers/

Vefsíður

14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corexit

15. http://masgc.org/oilscience/oil-spill-science-impact-on-gulf-seafood.pdf

16. http://oils.gpa.unep.org/facts/sources.htm

17. http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-3/oil-and-gas/oiling-the-oceans/

18. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-39223308

19. http://www.dnr.louisiana.gov/assets/TAD/education/BGBB/2/ancient_use.html

20. http://www.history.com/topics/oil-industry

21. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/arctic-cold-climates/at-sea-response-to-arctic-oil-spills/

22. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/arctic-cold-climates/limitations-of-arctic-oil-spill-response/

23. https://www.itopf.com/fileadmin/data/Documents/Papers/persistent.pdf

24. https://www.iea.org/about/faqs/oil/

25. http://www.oceanfutures.org/news/blog/deepwater-horizon-oil-spill-5-year-aftermath

26. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/news/apr17/dwh-protected-species.html

27. https://response.restoration.noaa.gov/about/media/bottom-gulf-mexico-corals-and-diversity-suffered-after-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill.html

28. https://www.epa.gov/eg/petroleum-refining-effluent-guidelines

29. https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/stories/the-13-largest-oil-spills-in-history

30. https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2014/03/the-exxon-valdez-oil-spill-25-years-ago-today/100703/

31. https://www.wired.com/2015/08/flame-throwing-helicopter-fights-wildfires/

32. http://www.festanks.com.au/crude-oil-refining-in-australia-infographic/

33. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=28552

Myndir

Mynd 2.1. Qiu Ju Song/Shutterstock, Christian Kobierski/Shutterstock og skyblue 16/Shutterstock

Mynd 2.2. Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á efni úr Oil and Gas Operations and Markets

Mynd 2.3. Sergei Kohl/Shutterstock

Mynd 2.4. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, byggt á https://www.tagoil.com/production-cost-winner-tag-oil-ranks-in-the-top-tier/

Mynd 2.5. Bild LLC/Shutterstock og http://www.pipeline101.com/Where-Are-Pipelines-Located

Mynd 2.6. https://www.festanks.com.au/crude-oil-refining-in-australia-infographic/

Mynd 2.7. Myndir af https://commons.wikimedia.org : https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crude_oil.JPG , https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Residual_fuel_oil.JPG , https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bequer-B100-SOJA-SOYBEAM.jpg

Mynd 2.8. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, byggt á myndum 1 og 2 í heimild Fate of marine oil spills, tp2

Mynd 2.9. Studio Barcelona/Shutterstock

Mynd 2.10. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, byggt á http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/data-statistics/statistics/

Mynd 2.11. Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á mynd 4 í heimild 2

Mynd 2.12. Myndir af https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/news/apr17/dwh-protected-species.html og úr Fate of marine oil spills (heimild 2; myndir 3 og 8)

Mynd 2.13. Myndir af https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/news/apr17/dwh-protected-species.html

Mynd 2.14. Myndir af https://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/animals/photos/gulf-oil-spill-animals-cant-escape-the-muck/a-symbol-of-disaster#top-desktop, sótt 29. september 2017

Mynd 2.15. Myndir af https://response.restoration.noaa.gov/about/media/bottom-gulf-mexico-corals-and-diversity-suffered-after-deepwater-horizon-oil-spill.html og https://www.photolib.noaa.gov/Collections/Voyage/Ocean-Exploration/Modern-Expeditions/OER/Lophelia-II/emodule/1420/egallery/830/epage/3

Mynd 2.16. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir; byggt á http://masgc.org/oilscience/oil-spill-science-impact-on-gulf-seafood.pdf

Mynd 2.17. Sigurður B. Finnsson, byggt á mynd 13 í Fate of marine oil spills, tp2

Mynd 2.18. Myndir úr: Use of booms in oil pollution response (Technical Information Paper, 3. ITOPF), Use of skimmers in oil pollution response. (Technical Information Paper, 5. ITOPF) og Use of sorbent materials in oil spill response (Technical Information Paper, 8. ITOPF)

Mynd 2.19. Myndir af http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/response-techniques/in-situ-burning/ og http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2015/08/03/cal-fires-heli-torch-used-to-keep-rocky-fire-from-spreading-in-rugged-terrain/

Mynd 2.20. Myndir af http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/response-techniques/dispersants/ og https://response.restoration.noaa.gov/about/media/help-noaa-research-chemical-dispersants-and-oil-spills.html

Mynd 2.21. Mynd úr: Use of dispersants to treat oil spills (Technical Information Paper, 4. ITOPF)

Mynd 2.22. http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/documents-guides/arctic-cold-climates/at-sea-response-to-arctic-oil-spills/

Mynd 2.23. Myndir af http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-39223308 og http://worldoceanreview.com/en/wor-3/oil-and-gas/oiling-the-oceans/

Mynd 2.24. Myndir af https://www.theatlantic.com/photo/2014/03/the-exxon-valdez-oil-spill-25-years-ago-today/100703/

Mynd 2.25. Myndir af https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_images.jsp?cntn_id=133059&org=NSF og http://gulfresearchinitiative.org/research-on-dispersants-that-informs-oil-spill-response/ (U.S. Coast Guard photo by Petty Officer 3rd Class Stephen Lehmann)