Heimildir og ítarefni fyrir kafla 7

1. Anders Andreasen og Kirsten Nyggard (2011). Water-in-fuel emulsion as marine engine fuel for reduced NOx and particulate emissions. Danish Environmental Protection Agency. https://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2011/08/978-87-92779-30-4.pdf

2. Björn Hassler (2011). Accidental Versus Operational Oil Spills from Shipping in the Baltic Sea: Risk Governance and Management Strategies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357785/

3. EEA (2016). EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook 2016. Technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016

4. Günter Baumbach (1993). Luftreinhaltun (3. Auflage). Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

5. Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution – GESAMP (1989). The evaluation of the hazards of harmful substances carried by ships. IMO.

6. Jón Már Halldórsson. „Hvað getið þið sagt mér um kóngakrabba?“ Vísindavefurinn, 10. október 2002. Sótt 16. ágúst 2019. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=2775.

7. Monica Crippa o.fl. (2016). Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts. Birt í Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/3825/2016/acp-16-3825-2016.pdf

8. Quality Status Report 2010. Ospar Commission. https://qsr2010.ospar.org/en/index.html

9. Sonja Endres o.fl. (2018). A New Perspective at the Ship-Air-Sea-Interface: The Environmental Impacts of Exhaust Gas Scrubber Discharge. Birt í Frontiers in Marine Science. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmars.2018.00139/full

10. TOCPRO (2015). International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) -PRACTICAL GUIDE. https://maddenmaritime.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/marpol-practical-guide.pdf

11. Wickham Associates (2002). Status of Industry Efforts to replace Halon Fire Extinguishing Agents. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-07/documents/status.pdf

Vefsíður

12. http://oils.gpa.unep.org/facts/operational.htm

13. https://ust.is/haf-og-vatn/mengun-fra-skipum/marpol/

14. http://www.exomission.de/index.php/einfuehrung-und-hintergrund/emissionen

15. http://www.imo.org/en/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International-Convention-for-the-Prevention-of-Pollution-from-Ships-(MARPOL).aspx

16. http://www.marpoltraining.com/MMSKOREAN/MARPOL/Annex_VI/r13.htm

17. http://www.marpoltraining.com/MMSKOREAN/MARPOL/Annex_VI/r14.htm

18. http://www.shipwonders.com/marpol-trainee/4589587688

19. https://safety4sea.com/cm-complying-with-nox-tier-iii-standards-what-you-need-to-know/

20. https://safety4sea.com/imo-nox-tier-iii-effective-from-january-2016/

21. https://safety4sea.com/ship-emissions-monitoring-enforcement-and-human-health/

22. https://safety4sea.com/upcoming-environmental-regulations-for-emissions-to-air-imo-nox-tier-iii/

23. https://safety4sea.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/DNV-GL-IMO-NOx-Tier-III-2015_10.pdf

24. https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/publictn/elkins/cfcs.html

25. https://www.marineinsight.com/marpol-annex-1-explained-how-to-prevent-pollution-from-oil-at-sea/

26. https://www.marineinsight.com/maritime-law/marpol-annex-4-explained-how-to-prevent-pollution-from-sewage-at-sea/

27. https://www.marineinsight.com/shipping-news/important-marpol-amendments-enter-force/

28. https://www.marineinsight.com/shipping-news/important-marpol-amendments-enter-force/

29. https://www.oecd.org/sti/ind/workshop-green-growth-maritime-industries-bourgeon.pdf

30. https://www.slideshare.net/MohammudHanifDewan/marpol-annex-vi-chapter-4

Myndir

Mynd 7.1. Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á http://www.crackingias.com/news_blog?news_id=140

Mynd 7.2. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd. Sérhafsvæði teiknuð inn á kort frá NOAA, https://noaa.maps.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html?layers=6e95b4468f724a3e926a7e77986fba0d

Mynd 7.3. Studio Barcelona/Shutterstock

Mynd 7.4. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd. Byggt á http://www.emsa.europa.eu/news-a-press-centre/external-news/2-news/1879-addressing-illegal-discharges-in-the-marine-environment.html

Mynd 7.5. Andrey Polivanov/Shutterstock og Þorvaldur Guðmundsson

Mynd 7.6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X11000713#f0030

Mynd 7.7 sjá mynd 5.2.

Mynd 7.8. sjá mynd 4.13.

Mynd 7.9. skyblue 16/Shutterstock og GTS Productions/Shutterstock

Mynd 7.10. sjá mynd 3.1.

Mynd 7.11. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir og Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir

Mynd 7.12. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, byggt á mynd 5 í https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13280-019-01244-4

Mynd 7.13. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd, byggt á mynd 2.1 í  heimild 4

Mynd 7.14. https://www.worldmaritimeaffairs.com/ship-exhaust-scrubber-system-what-is-all-about/

Mynd 7.15. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd, byggt á viðauka VI við MARPOL; https://edgar.jrc.ec.europa.eu/gallery.php?release=v432_AP&substance=NOx&sector=TOTALS

Mynd 7.16. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd, byggt á viðauka VI við MARPOL

Mynd 7.17. Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Water_pollution_by_ballast_water_de.svg

Mynd 7.18. https://ocean.si.edu/ocean-life/invertebrates/jellyfish-and-comb-jellies, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/greatlakes/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=68&Potential=Y&Type=2&HUCNumber=, https://oceana.org/marine-life/cephalopods-crustaceans-other-shellfish/red-king-crab

Mynd 7.19. Myndir úr https://www.samband.is/um-okkur/fundir-og-radstefnur/malthing-um-loftslagsmal/