Heimildir og ítarefni fyrir kafla 9

1. AMAP (1998). AMAP Assessment Report: Arctic Pollution Issues. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. xii+859 pp. https://www.amap.no/documents/doc/amap-assessment-report-arctic-pollution-issues/68

2. AMAP (2015). Summary for Policy-makers: Arctic Pollution Issues 2015. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. 12 pp https://www.amap.no/documents/download/2222/inline

3. AMAP (2019). Arctic Climate Change Update. https://www.amap.no/documents/download/3295/inline

4. CAFF (2017). State of the Arctic Marine Biodiversity: Key Findings and Advice for Monitoring. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland. ISBN: 978-9935-431-62-2. https://www.arcticbiodiversity.is/marine

5. Chen Long o.fl. (2019). Trans-provincial health impacts of atmospheric mercury emissions in China. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09080-6

6. David Streets o.fl. (2016). Global and regional trends in mercury emissions and concentrations, 2010–2015, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231018308884

7. EarthSky Voices (2019). What climate change in the Arctic means for the rest of us. https://earthsky.org/earth/climate-change-warming-arctic-means-for-the-rest-of-us

8. Emma Bryce (2019). Why is there so much oil in the Arctic. https://www.livescience.com/66008-why-oil-in-arctic.html

9. Fawole o.fl. (2016). Gas flaring and resultant air pollution: A review focusing on black carbon. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303726538_Gas_flaring_and_resultant_air_pollution_A_review_focusing_on_black_carbon

10. IPCC, 2019: Summary for Policymakers. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.- O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N. Weyer (eds.)]. In press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/3/2019/11/SROCC_FinalDraft_FullReport.pdf

11. Quality Status Report 2010. Ospar Commission. https://qsr2010.ospar.org/en/index.html

12. UNECE (2016). Towards Cleaner Air – Scientific Assessment Report 2016. https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/lrtap/ExecutiveBody/35th_session/CLRTAP_Scientific_Assessment_Report_-_Final_20-5-2016.pdf

Vefsíður

13. http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/ThePOPs/AllPOPs/tabid/2509/Default.aspx

14. http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/HotTopics/polar/Documents/How%20the%20Polar%20Code%20protects%20the%20environment%20%28English%20infographic%29.pdf

15. http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Convention/Text/tabid/3426/language/en-US/Default.aspxhttps://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3049/fs2008-3049.pdf

16. https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/industry-and-energy/2018/03/offshore-arctic-platform-prirazlomnaya-prepares-doubling-production

17. https://transportgeography.org/?page_id=412

18. https://www.arcticbiodiversity.is/index.php/findings/sea-ice-biota

19. https://www.climatechangenews.com/2016/02/09/an-illustrated-history-of-arctic-oil-exploration/

20. https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-heavy-metal-hm-emissions-1/assessment-10

21. https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-persistent-organic-pollutant-pop-emissions-1/assessment-10

22. https://www.eurasiareview.com/21122011-estimates-of-undiscovered-oil-and-gas-north-of-the-arctic-circle-analysis/

23. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/08/map-shows-how-ships-navigate-melting-arctic-feature/?fbclid=IwAR3bPn_GU_u7lPl5FqwOI_cScE7uhWTcV5m7E3oZjvam5fTZKGlSNGtfu-Y

24. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/07/4-crazy-things-that-are-happening-in-the-arctic-right-now/

Myndir

Mynd 9.1. vitstudio/Shutterstock

Mynd 9.2. Myndir af https://www.vedur.is/media/rannsoknir/Loftlagsskyrsla_Vefur-Kafli-4-Vedurfarsbreytingar-a-Islandi.pdf, https://research.noaa.gov/article/ArtMID/587/ArticleID/2351/Study-In-2016%E2%80%99s-record-Arctic-warmth-a-glimpse-of-the-future og https://earthsky.org/earth/climate-change-warming-arctic-means-for-the-rest-of-us

Mynd 9.3. Myndir af https://earthsky.org/earth/climate-change-warming-arctic-means-for-the-rest-of-us og https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/arctic-shifts-to-a-carbon-source-due-to-winter-soil-emissions

Mynd 9.4. Steffen M. Olsen/Twitter

Mynd 9.5. Úr heimild 4 (mynd 1)

Mynd 9.6. Mynd af https://www.livescience.com/64544-collapsing-polar-vortex-winter-weather.html (mynd frá NOAA)

Mynd 9.7. Knut Troim/Unsplash og Gudkov Andrey/Shutterstock

Mynd 9.8. Myndir af https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-persistent-organic-pollutant-pop-emissions-1/assessment-10 og https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/eea32-heavy-metal-hm-emissions-1/assessment-10

Mynd 9.9. William Bossen/Unsplash

Mynd 9.10. Myndir af https://transportgeography.org/?page_id=412 og Hubert Neufeld/Unsplash

Mynd 9.11. Mynd af https://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2015/jun/16/drilling-oil-gas-arctic-alaska

Mynd 9.12. Mynd af https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/industry-and-energy/2018/03/offshore-arctic-platform-prirazlomnaya-prepares-doubling-production

Mynd 9.13. Sjá mynd 2.22

Mynd 9.14. Myndir af https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/2019/08/map-shows-how-ships-navigate-melting-arctic-feature/?fbclid=IwAR3bPn_GU_u7lPl5FqwOI_cScE7uhWTcV5m7E3oZjvam5fTZKGlSNGtfu-Y

Mynd 9.15. Sigurður B. Finnsson. Mörk pólkóðans fengin frá IMO, „Resolution A.1024(26) – GUIDELINES FOR SHIPS OPERATING IN POLAR WATERS“, sjá málsgrein G-3.3, bls. 7, http://www.imo.org/blast/blastDataHelper.asp?data_id=29985&filename=A1024%2826%29.pdf; Grunnkort: Esri, Garmin, GEBCO, NOAA NGDC ásamt öðrum, sjá nánar https://services.arcgisonline.com/arcgis/rest/services/Polar/Arctic_Ocean_Base/MapServer.