Heimildir og ítarefni fyrir kafla 3

1. Glynn Henry, Gary W. Heinke. Environmental Science and Engineering – second edition. New Jersey, 1996.

2. Halldór Björnsson (2015): Hnattrænar loftslagsbreytingar og áhrif þeirra á Íslandi. Fyrirlestur haldinn á opnum fundi Landsvirkjunar um framtíðarhorfur í loftslagsmálum, 22. maí 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Te04X1q-vqo

3. Halldór Björnsson, Árný E. Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Anna K. Daníelsdóttir, Árni Snorrason, Bjarni D. Sigurðsson, Einar Sveinbjörnsson, Gísli Viggósson, Jóhann Sigurjónsson, Snorri Baldursson, Sólveig Þorvaldsdóttir og Trausti Jónsson. 2008. Hnattrænar loftslagsbreytingar og áhrif þeirra á Íslandi – Skýrsla vísindanefndar um loftslagsbreytingar. Umhverfisráðuneytið. https://www.stjornarradid.is/media/umhverfisraduneyti-media/media/PDF_skrar/visindanefndloftslagsbreytingar.pdf

4. Hrönn Egilsdóttir (2011). Súrnun sjávar og lífríki hafsins I og II. Gestapistlar á loftslag.is. http://www.loftslag.is/?p=10716 og http://www.loftslag.is/?p=12468

5. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. 1535 bls. http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_ALL_FINAL.pdf

6. IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 bls. http://ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full_wcover.pdf

7. IPCC, 2014: Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts,Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L.White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-32. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf

8. IPCC, 2018: Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla,
A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. In Press. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/05/SR15_SPM_version_report_LR.pdf

9. IUCN, 2016. Ocean Warming: causes, scale, effects and consequences. Executive Summary. https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/2016-046-Summ.pdf

10. Jón Ólafsson og Sólveig R. Ólafsdóttir (2017): Súrnun sjávar, hér og þar. Fyrirlestur á ársfundi Veðurstofu Íslands. Umhverfisþingi 30. mars 2017. http://www.ustream.tv/recorded/101553319

11. Sólveig R. Ólafsdóttir og Jón Ólafsson (2013): Súrnun hafsins. Fyrirlestur á Umhverfisþingi 8. nóvember 2013. Umhverfisráðuneytið. http://www.umhverfisraduneyti.is/media/PDF_skrar/umhverfisthing_solveig_r_olafsdottir.ppt

12. Sævar Helgi Bragason. „Hvernig lítur sólkerfið okkar út á smækkaðri mynd í réttum stærðarhlutföllum?“ Vísindavefurinn, 5. júní 2002. Sótt 2. ágúst 2017. http://visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=2460.

Vefsíður

13. http://ocean.si.edu/ocean-acidification

14. http://www.fiskifrettir.is/frettir/fisktegundir-munu-rada-misvel-vid-surnun-hafsins/139887/

15. http://www.iflscience.com/environment/what-would-happen-climate-if-we-stopped-emitting-greenhouse-gases-today/

16. http://www.whoi.edu/OCB-OA/page.do?pid=112136

17. https://coral.org/coral-reefs-101/coral-reef-ecology/

18. https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/acidification.html

19. https://www.carbontracker.org/reports/unburnable-carbon-wasted-capital-and-stranded-assets/

20. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

21. https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/3M_HEAT_CONTENT/

22. https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/What+is+Ocean+Acidification%3F

23. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL7qJYKzcsk Demystifying ocean acidification an d biodiversity impacts. Myndband frá California Academy of Sciences

24. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgdlAt4CR-4 NOAA Ocean Acidification – The Other Carbon Dioxide Problem. Myndband frá NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).

Myndir

Mynd 3.1. Af vef NASA: https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_1940.html

Mynd 3.2. Af vísindavefnum: https://www.visindavefur.is/svar.php?id=2460

Mynd 3.3 Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Earth%27s_greenhouse_effect_%28US_EPA%2C_2012%29.png/1280px-Earth%27s_greenhouse_effect_%28US_EPA%2C_2012%29.png

Mynd 3.4. Sigurður Bernharð Finnsons, gert eftir gögnunum frá “Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core”, http://cdiac.ess-dive.lbl.gov/trends/co2/vostok.html

Mynd 3.5. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, byggt á https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

Mynd 3.6. Af vef Our World in Datahttps://ourworldindata.org/co2-and-other-greenhouse-gas-emissions/

Mynd 3.7. Af vef World Resource Institute: http://www.wri.org/blog/2015/06/infographic-what-do-your-countrys-emissions-look

Mynd 3.8. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, byggt á http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/figures/WGI_AR5_FigTS-19.jpg

Mynd 3.9. Chris Gallagher/Unsplash, WIJI/Shutterstock, Matt Howard/Unsplash

Mynd 3.10. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd

Mynd 3.11. Sigurður Bernharð Finnsson, byggt á https://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/

Mynd 3.12. Anna_Pushkareva, mynd af www.shutterstock.com og mynd FigBoxTS6-1 af https://archive.ipcc.ch/report/graphics/index.php?t=Assessment%20Reports&r=AR5%20-%20WG1&f=Technical%20Summary

Mynd 3.13. Af vef CSIRO: https://research.csiro.au/slrwavescoast/sea-level/sea-level-changes/?fbclid=IwAR19be-VtOv3FXV7FRElfzMDPz2qsVCYM4BcLkGElrFsVEzwpd70yfegDNA og af vef Veðurstofunnar: http://www.vedur.is/loftslag/rannsoknir/ipcc/ipcc-2013/

Mynd 3.14. Mynd FigTS-02 af https://archive.ipcc.ch/report/graphics/index.php?t=Assessment%20Reports&r=AR5%20-%20WG1&f=Technical%20Summary

Mynd 3.15.  Af vef ArctischePinguinhttps://sites.google.com/site/arctischepinguin/home/piomas

Mynd 3.16  Af vef IPCC: http://climatechange.cornell.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Ocean-surface_warming.jpg

Mynd 3.17. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd

Mynd 3.18. Myndir frá Jóni Ólafssyni, sent til höfunda 16. október 2017 (Heimild: Takahashi et al., 2014. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2014.06.004)

Mynd 3.19. Af vef Veðurstofunnar: https://www.vedur.is/loftslag/rannsoknir/ipcc/ipcc-2013/

Mynd 3.20. Sigurður Bernharð Finnson, byggt á https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Carbonate_system_of_seawater.svg

Mynd 3.21. Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á O. Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007. Science Vol. 318. no. 5857, pp. 1737 – 1742 DOI: 10.1126/science.1152509.

Mynd 3.22. Mynd FigTS-20 af https://archive.ipcc.ch/report/graphics/index.php?t=Assessment%20Reports&r=AR5%20-%20WG1&f=Technical%20Summary

Mynd 3.23. Kletr/Shutterstock og Lotus_studio/Shutterstock

Mynd 3.24. Myndir af vef NOAA: https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/What+is+Ocean+Acidification%3F , https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/foci/visualizations/drifter/stabeno/cocco.html og http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/explorations/ex1703/logs/mar24/media/spines.html

Mynd 3.25. Myndir úr Rate of Iceland Sea acidification from time series measurements (Jón Ólafsson o.fl, 2009; https://www.biogeosciences.net/6/2661/2009/bg-6-2661-2009.pdf)

Mynd 3.26. Himanshu Sharaf/Shutterstock  og Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock

Mynd 3.27. Edda Karólína Ævarsdóttir, byggt á https://www.biogeosciences.net/6/2661/2009/bg-6-2661-2009.pdf

Mynd 3.28. Mynd úr Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO2 emissions scenarios (J.-P. Gattuso o.fl., 2015, http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6243/aac4722?sid=4d57e97f-8860-4a5d-8863-9d80373ed461)

Mynd 3.29. Af heimasíðu UFZ: http://www.ufz.de/index.php?en=35579

Mynd 3.30. Rusya/Shutterstock og DariaGa/Shutterstock

Mynd 3.31. Alex Stemmer/Shutterstock og Drew McArthur/Shutterstock

Mynd 3.32. Myndir af: http://www.loftslag.is/?p=10716 og http://www.hafro.is/Bokasafn/Timarit/fjolrit-162.pdf

Mynd 3.33. Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, skýringarmynd

Myndbönd

Myndband 3.1. Andy Jacobson, CIRES/NOAA: https://youtu.be/UatUDnFmNTY

Myndband 3.2. NASA, NOAA: https://youtu.be/bCVXnrQfzgA

Myndband 3.3. NASA Climate Change: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jbMCyE3eUU

Myndband 3.4. NASA Climate Change: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=7&v=ZVWXC_j7Dqs

Myndband 3.5. NASA Climate Change: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6ECtZCeqwE

Myndband 3.6. University of Hawai: http://iprc.soest.hawaii.edu/users/tobiasf/Outreach/OA/Ocean_Acidification.html

Myndband 3.7. California Academy of Sciences, Demystifying ocean acidification and biodiversity impactshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL7qJYKzcsk